Such structures are used in refineries and nuclear power plants as support racks for the pipes carrying various gases and liquids.
Those built for the petrochemical industry (oil refineries and processing of oil derivates) are particularly significant.
Also frequent are those found in nuclear and thermal power plants for the production of electrical energy from steam and in the chemical industry (manufacture of plastics, tyres, food, pharmaceutical products, etc.).
They are used in industries in general to have air, water, steam, fuel, and all kind of liquids and even meltable solids transported and pumped.
These are rather slender structures made up of column and girder grids at different heights and arranged in columns and rows of cross bracing, due to the heavy loads they bear (gravity, wind and seismic forces).
Projects that have applied them